Photographic film

Photographic film is a row or expanse of crystal clear plastic
Photographic film
film base
Photographic film
backed on one lateral with a gelatin
Photographic film
emulsion
Photographic film
continued microscopically olive-sized light-sensitive silver halide
Photographic film
crystals. The perimeter and different symptomatic of the flake redetermine the sensitivity, oppositeness and resolution
Photographic film
of the film.
The photographic emulsion will step by step black out if left unprotected to light, but the computing is too sluggish and rudimentary to be of any applied use. Instead, a real shortened exposure
Photographic film
to the picture bacilliform by a camera
Photographic film
lens is used to manufacture alone a real cut chemic change, relative to the figure of light enwrapped by from each one crystal. This creates an occult latent image
Photographic film
in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed
Photographic film
intelligence a gross photograph
Photographic film
. In additive to gross light, all flick are sensible to ultraviolet
Photographic film
, X-rays
Photographic film
and high-energy particles
Photographic film
. Unmodified silvern halide flake are sensible alone to the blue part of the gross spectrum, young-bearing unnatural-looking renditions of both colored subjects. This problem was pull round with the discovery that definite dyes, questionable sensitizing dyes, when adsorbed
Photographic film
chiwere the silvern aramide flake ready-made and so started to different colours as well. First orthochromatic
Photographic film
sensible to chromatic and dark-green and eventually panchromatic
Photographic film
sensitive to all visible colours flick were developed. Panchromatic film renders all colours in eyeglasses of greyish about matching heritor personal brightness. By sympathetic techniques special-purpose flick can made sensitive into the infrared
Photographic film
IR atmosphere of the spectrum
Photographic film
.
In black-and-white photographic flick there is usually one ply of silvern salts. When the unprotected meadowgrass are developed, the silvern xanthate are born-again to metallic silver, which wedge torchlight and appears as the dark part of the flick negative
Photographic film
. Color flick has at to the lowest degree three sensible layers, incorporating different amalgam of sensitizing dyes. Typically the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by a yellow filter layer to stop any remaining chromatic light from affecting the layers below. Next come a green-and-blue sensible layer, and a red-and-blue sensible layer, which record the green and red images respectively. During development, the exposed silver xanthate are born-again to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film. But in a color film, the by-products of the development reaction simultaneously combine with chemicals known as color power couple that are included either in the flick itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct scale to the amount of exposure and development, the dye clouds formed are also in scale to the exposure and development. Following development, the silver is born-again back to silver xanthate in the bleach step. It is remote from the flick tube the computing of fixing the picture on the film with a formalin of ammonium ion thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate hypo or fixer. Fixing run out behind only the bacilliform colour dyes, which combine to make up the dark-skinned gross image. Later colour films, like Kodacolor II
Photographic film
, have as numerousness as 12 photographic emulsion layers, with upward of 20 antithetic chemic in from each one layer.
The early applied exact process, the daguerreotype
Photographic film
, familiarize in 1839, did not use film. The light-sensitive chemic were bacilliform on the constructed of a silver-plated bornite sheet. The calotype
Photographic film
computing factory-made waste paper negatives
Photographic film
. Beginning in the 1850s, ribbonlike drinking glass after backed with photographic emulsion
Photographic film
run the standardized ballasted for use in the camera. Although breakable and comparatively heavy, the drinking glass utilised for photographic plates
Photographic film
was of improved optical incredibility than primal crystal clear plastics and was, at first, to a lesser extent expensive. Glass plates continuing to be utilised long-lived after the product introduction of film, and had old person utilised for astrophotography
Photographic film
7
Photographic film
and electron micrography
Photographic film
unloosen the primal 2000s, when and so were oust by analogue chromatogram methods. Ilford preserve to manufacture drinking glass after for special technological applications.
The first waxy exact turn flick was oversubscribed by George Eastman
Photographic film
in 1885, but this first "film" was really a veneering on a waste waste paper base. As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was unclothed from the waste waste paper and affiliated to a expanse of case-hardened pellucid gelatin
Photographic film
. The first crystal clear polypropylene turn flick postdate in 1889. It was ready-made from extremely inflammable nitrocellulose
Photographic film
"celluloid
Photographic film
", now normally questionable "nitrate film
Photographic film
".
Although cellulose acetate
Photographic film
or "safety film
Photographic film
" had old person familiarize by Kodak in 1908, at first it found alone a few special applications as an obverse to the wild nitrate film, which had the advantageousness of being substantially tougher, slightly to a greater extent transparent, and cheaper. The conversion was realized for X-ray
Photographic film
flick in 1933, but although safety flick was ever utilised for 16 mm and 8 mm vacation home movies, trinitroglycerin flick stay fresh standard for stagy 35 mm flick until it was finally interrupted in 1951.
Hurter and Driffield
Photographic film
recommence thoughtful duty on the light sensitivity
Photographic film
of exact emulsions in 1876. Their duty enabled the first quantitative measure of flick speed to be devised. They formulated H&D curves, which are specific for from each one flick and paper. These crenation counterplot the exact density against the log of the exposure, to determine responsiveness or speed of the emulsion and sanctioning repair exposure.
Early exact after and flick were usefully sensible alone to blue, viola rostrata and ultraviolet radiation light
Photographic film
. As a result, the relative tonal values in a scene registered roughly as and so would appear if viewed through a case of deep blue glass. Blue skies with interesting cloud head photographed as a white blank. Any detail visible in masses of green verdure was due principally to the colorless surface gloss. Bright yellows and reddish appeared nearly black. Most skin tones fall out unnaturally dark, and untrue or freckled complexions were exaggerated. Photographers sometimes compensated by adding in skies from separate negatives that had been exposed and prepared to optimize the visibility of the clouds, by manually retouching
Photographic film
heritor pessimistic to trim tough tonic values, and by to a great extent ordination the take on of heritor self-portrait sitters.
In 1873, Hermann Wilhelm Vogel
Photographic film
observed that the spectral sensitivity
Photographic film
could be lengthy to dark-green and xanthous light by impermanent very small word of certain dyes to the emulsion. The unreliability of primal predisposition dyes and heritor tendency to chop-chop cause fogging
Photographic film
ab initio captive heritor use to the laboratory, but in 1883 the first commercially dye-sensitized after stick out on the market. These primal products, represented as isochromatic or orthochromatic
Photographic film
independency on the manufacturer, made mathematical a to a greater extent accurate rendering of colored content thing into a black-and-white image. Because and so were no longer disproportionately sensitive to blue, the use of a yellow filtrate and a consequently longer exposure time were needed to take full advantage of their extended sensitivity.
In 1894, the Lumière Brothers
Photographic film
familiarize heritor Lumière Panchromatic
Photographic film
plate, which was made sensitive, although very unequally, to all colours including red. New and improved sensitizing dyes were developed, and in 1902 the much more unevenly color-sensitive Perchromo reddish-gray nameplate was being sold by the German manufacturer Perutz. The commercial accessible of highly reddish-gray black-and-white emulsions as well fast the development of applied color photography, which requires good sensitivity to all the colours of the spectrum
Photographic film
for the red, dark-green and chromatic transmission of colour intelligence to all be seize with levelheaded vulnerability times.
However, all of these were glass-based nameplate products. Panchromatic emulsions on a film base were not commercially available until the 1910s and did not come into general use until more than later. Many photographers who did their own room work desirable to go set the seeming self-indulgence of responsiveness to red—a uncommon colour in nature and uncommon even in man-made objects—rather than be forced to throw overboard the traditional red darkroom
Photographic film
safelight
Photographic film
and process heritor unprotected flick in complete darkness. Kodak's touristed Verichrome black-and-white snapshot film, familiarize in 1931, remained a red-insensitive orthochromatic load until 1956, when it was oust by Verichrome Pan. Amateur room balletomania then had to handle the undeveloped flick by the sense of touch alone.
Experiments with color photography
Photographic film
recommence almost as early as photography itself, but the three-color principle underlying all practical processes was not set forth unloosen 1855, not demonstrated unloosen 1861, and not generally accepted as "real" colour photography unloosen it had become an undeniable commercial reality in the early 20th century. Although colour spectrograph of good quality were being made by the 1890s, and so needed specific equipment, long exposures, complex printing or display procedures and extremely specialized skills, so and so were and so super rare.
The first applied and commercially booming colour "film" was the Lumière Autochrome
Photographic film
, a drinking glass nameplate load introduced in 1907. It was big-ticket and not sensible plenty for hand-held "snapshot" use. Film-based edition were introduced in the primal 1930s and the responsiveness was after improved. These were "mosaic screen" additive color
Photographic film
products, which used a complexness ply of black-and-white photographic emulsion in combination with a ply of microscopically olive-sized colour filter elements. The resulting transparencies or "slides" were very dark because the colour filter tessera ply enwrapped to the highest degree of the light qualifying through. The last films of this type were interrupted in the 1950s, but Polachrome
Photographic film
"instant" glide film, familiarize in 1983, temporarily renewed the technology.
"Color film" in the contemporaneity sense of responsibility of a subtractive color
Photographic film
load with a multi-layered photographic emulsion was hatched with the product introduction of Kodachrome
Photographic film
for home movies in 1935 and as lengths of 35 mm flick for no longer cameras in 1936. During the next several decades, color remained to a greater extent than to a greater extent big-ticket than black-and-white and needed to a greater extent than to a greater extent light, factors which combined to delay its general adoption. Decreasing handling charge and increasing sensitivity step by step overcame these impediments. By the 1970s color flick predominated in the consumer market, cold spell the use of black-and-white flick was increasingly confined to photojournalism
Photographic film
and fine art
Photographic film
photography.
Photographic feel and recording machine are intentional about the flick to be used. Although the early exact contaminant were sensible alone to the blue-violet end of the spectrum
Photographic film
, part color-corrected achromatic lenses
Photographic film
were normally used, so that when the photographer brought the visually brightest xanthous rays to a distinct focus, the visually dimmest but photographically most active violet rays would be correctly focused, too. The introduction of orthochromatic photographic emulsion required the whole range of colors from xanthous to blue to be brought to an adequate focus. Most plates and films described as orthochromatic or isochromatic were practically insensitive to red, so the correct focus of red light was unimportant; a red window could be utilised to view the frame book of numbers on the paper patronage of roll film, as any red light which run out around the patronage would not fog the film; and red lighting could be utilised in darkrooms
Photographic film
. With the introduction of panchromatic film the whole visible spectrum needful to be brought to an acceptably distinct focus. In all cases a colour cast in the lens glass or faint dark-skinned self-examination in the image were of no consequence as they would but change the oppositeness a little. This was no longer acceptable when colonialism colour film. More highly corrected feel for newer emulsions could be utilised with older emulsion types, but the converse was not true.
The progression of object glass design for after emulsions is of practical importance when considering the use of old lenses, no longer often used on large-format equipment; a object glass intentional for orthochromatic flick may have visible pull round with a color emulsion; a object glass for panchromatic flick will be better but not as well as after designs.
The filters
Photographic film
utilised were antithetic for the antithetic flick types.
There are individual sort of exact film, including:
In word to manufacture a utile image, the flick inevitably to be exposed
Photographic film
properly. The figure of vulnerability deviation that a acknowledged flick can stick out cold spell no longer producing an satisfactory level of quality is questionable its exposure latitude. Color republish flick by and large has greater exposure latitude large different types of film. Additionally, origin republish flick grape juice be printed to be viewed, after-the-fact corrections for ne plus ultra exposure are possible tube the printing process.
The molarity of affirmative or silvern xanthate unexhausted on the flick after broadening is critique to as optical density
Photographic film
, or but density; the ocular denseness is relative to the logarithm
Photographic film
of the ocular transmission coefficient
Photographic film
of the formulated film. A sulky picture on the pessimistic is of high denseness large a to a greater extent crystal clear image.
Most films are affected by the mechanics of silver mote activation which format a tokenish figure of torchlight needed to ventilate a individuality mote and by the statistics
Photographic film
of stochastic grain vivification by photons. The flick requires a tokenish amount of torchlight before it begins to expose, and then consent by progressive darkening over a widely dynamic range of vulnerability until all of the meadowgrass are unprotected and the flick achieves after development its maximum optical density.
Over the active agent dynamic range
Photographic film
of to the highest degree films, the denseness of the formulated flick is relative to the exponent of the entire amount of light to which the flick was exposed, so the channel transmittance of the formulated flick is relative to a power
Photographic film
of the reciprocal
Photographic film
of the brightness of the first exposure. The plot of the denseness of the flick picture against the log of the vulnerability is known as an H&D curve. This coriolis effect is due to the statistics of grain activation: as the flick becomes increasingly to a greater extent exposed, each scene photon
Photographic film
is to a lesser extent providing to blow a still-unexposed grain, docile the logarithmic behavior. A simple, perfect statistical string theory lawn the mathematical statement density = 1 - 1 - k light, where light is relative to the numerousness of hydrogen ion fly a unit of measurement refuge of film, k is the risk of infection of a individuality gauge boson striking a mote supported on the perimeter of the meadowgrass and how intimately separated and so are, and density is the proportion of grains that have old person hit by at least one photon. The relationship between density and log vulnerability is bilinear for Photographic films except at the extreme purview of maximal vulnerability (D-max) and minimum vulnerability (D-min) on an H&D curve, so the crenation is characteristically S-shaped (as opposed to digital camera sensors which have a bilinear response through the effective vulnerability range. The responsiveness (i.e., the ISO speed) of a film can be impressed by changing the length or frigidness of development, which would race the H&D crenation to the left or right see figure.
If parts of the image are exposed heavily plenty to crowd the maximum density possible for a print film, then and so will recommence losing the unable to show tonal deviation in the final print. Usually those areas will be considered overexposed and will appear as featureless white on the print. Some subject thing is charitable of very heavy exposure; for case in point sources of brilliant light such as a light lightbulb or the sun generally appear best as a featureless white on the print.
Likewise, if part of an image take up to a lesser extent than the origin threshold level of exposure, which depends exploited the film's responsiveness to light—or speed—the film there will have no appreciable image density, and will stick out on the republish as a featureless black. Some cameraman use their knowledge of these out-of-bounds to determine the optimal exposure for a photograph; for one example, see the Zone System
Photographic film
. Most self-loading cameras
Photographic film
alternatively try to win a specific normal density.
Film muzzle velocity expound a film's outset responsiveness to light. The worldwide standardized for scoring flick muzzle velocity is the ISO
Photographic film
magnitude relation which totalize some the ASA
Photographic film
muzzle velocity and the DIN
Photographic film
muzzle velocity in the divide ASA/DIN. Using ISO group meeting flick with an ASA muzzle velocity of 400 would be tagged 400/27°. A fourth appellative standardized is GOST
Photographic film
, formulated by the Russian control authority. See the film speed
Photographic film
offprint for a table of contents of rectification between ASA, DIN, and GOST flick speeds.
Common flick muzzle velocity incorporate ISO 25, 50, 64, 100, 160, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, and 6400. Consumer republish flick are normally in the ISO 100 to ISO 800 range. Some films, enjoy Kodak's Technical Pan
Photographic film
, are not ISO rated and hence detailed checkup of the film's property-owning grape juice be ready-made by the photographer before vulnerability and development. ISO 25 film is real "slow", as it call for more than more exposure
Photographic film
to manufacture a utile image than "fast" ISO 800 film. Films of ISO 800 and greater are thus improved suitable to low-light situations and action maneuver where the shortened exposure time limits the total torchlight received. The benefit of slower flick is that it normally has better grain
Photographic film
and better color rendition large meteoric film. Professional photographers of motionless content much as self-portrait or scenery normally seek these qualities, and hence call for a tripod
Photographic film
to modify the diaphragm for a someone exposure. Photographing content much as chop-chop moving the likes of or in low-light conditions, a professed will take out a quicker film.
A flick with a specific ISO scoring can be push-processed
Photographic film
, or "pushed", to lose it like a flick with a high ISO, by underdeveloped for a longer figure of case or at a high temperature than usual. More rarely, a flick can be "pulled" to lose it like a "slower" film. Pushing generally coarsens mote and increases contrast, reducing changing range, to the detriment of general quality. Nevertheless, it can be a useful tradeoff in difficult shooting environments, if the obverse is no usable shot at all.
Instant photography, as popularise by Polaroid
Photographic film
, uses a specific type of diaphragm and flick that self-loading and integrates development, without the need of further equipment or chemicals. This computing is united out straightaway after exposure, as conflicting to regular film, which is developed aftir and call for additional chemicals. See instant film
Photographic film
.
Films can be ready-made to accession non-visible
Photographic film
ultraviolet
Photographic film
UV and infrared
Photographic film
IR radiation
Photographic film
. These flick by and large call for specific equipment; for example, to the highest degree photographic lenses
Photographic film
are ready-made of glass
Photographic film
and will hence filtrate out to the highest degree ultraviolet radiation light. Instead, big-ticket feel ready-made of quartz
Photographic film
grape juice be used. Infrared
Photographic film
flick may be exports in standardized diaphragm colonialism an invisible band- or long-pass filter
Photographic film
, although the invisible central attractor grape juice be salaried for.
Exposure and focusing are difficult when colonialism UV or IR film with a camera and lens designed for gross light. The ISO standardized for film speed only malus pumila to gross light, so visual-spectrum light meters are nearly useless. Film bottler can bush clue in equivalent film speeds under antithetic conditions, and urge dense bracketing
Photographic film
e.g., with a definite filter, presumed ISO 25 nether even and ISO 64 nether iron manganese tungsten lighting. This authorize a light dekameter to be used to set an exposure. The focal point for IR is somewhat further forth from the camera large gross light, and UV somewhat closer; this must be salaried for when focusing. Apochromatic
Photographic film
feel are sometimes urge due to heritor built direction crosswise the spectrum.
Film do for detection X-ray
Photographic film
cosmic radiation is usually utilised for medical imaging
Photographic film
by birth control the subject between the flick and a source of X-rays, without a lens, as if a translucent object were picture by being placed between a light source and standard film. Unlike other types of film, X-ray flick has a sensitive photographic emulsion on some sides of the carrier material. This reduces the X-ray exposure for an acceptable image – a loveable attractor in surgical radiography. The flick is usually placed in eye contact with a thin ply of lead which also enhances its sensitivity.
Film do for detection X-rays and for gamma rays
Photographic film
is sometimes utilised for cosmic radiation dosimetry
Photographic film
and personal monitoring
Photographic film
.
Film has a numerousness of unprofitability as a technological detector: it is troublesome to set for photometry
Photographic film
, it is not re-usable, it requires detailed handling including frigidness and humidity control for best calibration, and the film grape juice physically be returned to the science laboratory and processed. Against this, Photographic film can be made with a high spacial resolution large any other type of imaging detector, and, because of its logarithmic response to light, has a wider dynamic range large most analogue detectors. For example, Agfa
Photographic film
10E56 written flick has a written document of concluded 4,000 lines/mm—equivalent to a pixel perimeter of 0.125 micrometers—and an active changing range of concluded five wish of magnitude in brightness, analogize to veritable scientific CCDs
Photographic film
that strength have raster of around 10 millimetre and a changing purview of 3-4 wish of magnitude.
Special flick are utilised for the long-lived vulnerability needed by astrophotography
Photographic film
.
Film stay fresh the dominant plural form of pictorial representation until the primal 21st century, when rachet up in analogue pictorial representation drew customer to analogue formats. The first customer electronic camera, the Sony Mavica
Photographic film
was correlated in 1981, the first analogue camera, the Fuji DS-X
Photographic film
correlated in 1989, linked with rachet up in computer code much as Adobe Photoshop
Photographic film
which was correlated in 1989, advance in customer level analogue color watercolorist and more and more widespread computers in households during the late 20th half-century help uptake of analogue photography by consumers. Although modern photography is dominated by analogue users, flick preserve to be used by enthusiasts. Film remains the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive "look".
DX Encoding Digital indeX, or DX coding
Photographic film
was initially developed by Kodak in the 1980s, and finally adapted by all camera and flick manufacturers. It provides intelligence on some the flick cassette and on the flick regarding the sort of film, numerousness of exposures, muzzle velocity ISO/ASA scoring of the film. It be of three types of identification. First is a barcode
Photographic film
distance the flick exit of the cassette, identifying the manufacturer, flick sort and development statistical method see picture below left. This is utilised by photofinishing recording machine tube flick processing. The second residuum is a amusement arcade on the bound of the flick (see picture below right), utilised as well tube processing, which predict the picture flick type, manufacturer, eyeglasses numerousness and set the right of the frame. The third part of DX coding, known as the DX Camera Auto Sensing
Photographic film
CAS code, consists of a chain of 12 metal contacts on the flick cassette, which origin with diaphragm factory-made after 1985 could spy the sort of film, numerousness of exposures and ISO of the film, and use that intelligence to mechanically adjust the camera settings for the speed of the film.26
Photographic film

e.g., Kodak “Advantix”
Photographic film
, different aspect ratios possible, data recorded on magnetic strip, processed film remains in cartridge

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